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J. Ma, J. Dushoff, B. M. Bolker, and D. J. D. Earn (2014)

Estimating initial epidemic growth rates

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 76(1):245-260.

The initial exponential growth rate of an epidemic is an important measure of disease spread, and is commonly used to infer the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. While modern techniques (e.g., MCMC and particle filtering) for parameter estimation of mechanistic models have gained popularity, maximum likelihood fitting of phenomenological models remains important due to its simplicity, to the difficulty of using modern methods in the context of limited data, and to the fact that there is not always enough information available to choose an appropriate mechanistic model. However, it is often not clear which phenomenological model is appropriate for a given dataset. We compare the performance of four commonly used phenomenological models (exponential, Richards, logistic, and delayed logistic) in estimating initial epidemic growth rates by maximum likelihood, by fitting them to simulated epidemics with known parameters. For incidence data, both the logistic model and the Richards model yield accurate point estimates for fitting windows up to the epidemic peak. When observation errors are small, the Richards model yields confidence intervals with better coverage. For mortality data, the Richards model and the delayed logistic model yield the best growth rate estimates. We also investigate the width and coverage of the confidence intervals corresponding to these fits.